Everything about Lead Acid Battery that You Want to Know


What Is Lead Acid Battery?

Lead-acid battery is a kind of battery. In 1859, French physicist Plante invented the battery. Its pole is mainly made of lead, and the electrolyte is a kind of battery of sulfuric acid solution. Lead acid batter is generally divided into not sealed battery type and valve regulated lead acid battery type. The former requires regular acid injection for maintenance, while the latter is a maintenance free battery. According to the battery model can be divided into AGM VRLA Small Series, AGM VRLA medium Series and 2V series.

Clarification of Lead Acid Battery

The common lead-acid batteries are mainly divided into three types, which are Ordinary Battery, Dry Charged Batteries and Maintenance-free Batteries.

Ordinary Battery: The electrode of an ordinary battery is composed of lead and lead oxide, and the electrolyte is an aqueous solution of sulfuric acid. Its main advantages are voltage stability and low price; Disadvantages are low energy storage of kilogram battery, short service life and frequent daily maintenance.

Dry Charge battery: Its main characteristic is that the negative plate has a higher power storage capacity. In a completely dry state, it can be saved in two years to get the power, use. After adding electrolyte, it can be used in 20-30 minutes.

Maintenance-free battery: Due to its structural advantages, the consumption of electrolyte is very small. The using life is usually twice of a common battery. There are also two kinds of maintenance-free batteries on the market: the first is that there is no need to add supplementary liquid in the use after adding electrolyte at the time of purchase; The other is that the battery itself has been added electrolyte and sealed when leaving the factory, the user does not need to add the supplement liquid.

Lead Acid Battery — the Mainstream of Automobile Battery Market

In recent years, the Chinese government has increasingly strict requirements on the fuel consumption standards of automobiles. Under this background, the start-stop system, which can effectively save fuel consumption, has gradually become the standard configuration of passenger vehicles. It is predicted that 15 million new cars in China will be equipped with start-stop system in 2020. The next few years will usher in the golden development period of China’s automobile start-stop battery market, with a very broad market prospect.

The start-stop battery has high technical requirements, because start-stop requires more frequent starting and power supply for on-board electrical appliances at idle, etc., so it has higher performance requirements for start-stop battery than ordinary batteries. At present, large-scale start-stop batteries in the market are divided into EFB and AGM. Lead-acid battery is still the main body of start-stop battery market, with a market share of about 90%, while lithium battery market share is still very small.

The United States began to promote the start-stop system in 2012, and the assembly rate increased significantly in 2017. Currently, the start-stop system has been widely promoted in developed countries, and it is expected that the assembly rate of the start-stop system in Europe will reach 90% and that of the United States will reach 57% by 2020.

Storage of Lead Acid Batter

1. Store in Wet:

Batteries not in use should be removed from the car for storage. Before storage, the battery shall be fully charged. The electrolyte density shall be adjusted to 1.28g/cm (25℃), and the liquid level shall reach the normal height. After sealing the vent of the liquid filling cover, it can be stored and the storage time shall not exceed 6 months. During the storage period, the electrolyte density and battery storage capacity should be checked regularly to ensure that at least once a month to recharge the battery, when the battery should be fully charged.

2. Store in Dry:

When the battery is stored for a long time, it is better to use dry storage method. The battery with 20H discharge rate complete discharging, pouring out the electrolyte, with distilled water rinse for several times until without no acid water, pouring out the water droplets, drying cover to tighten and add liquid cover storage, when re-enabled, the method is as the new battery same.

3. Storage Conditions:

1. The room temperature is 5~40℃, dry, clean and well ventilated.

2. Avoid direct sunlight and leave the heat source at least 2 meters.

3. Avoid contact with any liquid and harmful substances to prevent dirt from falling into the battery.

4. The battery should be discharged on the wooden frame to avoid stacking and any mechanical impact.

Current Situation of Waste Lead Acid Battery Recovery

Waste lead acid batteries contain lead and lead-containing acid and other substances. If disassembled, processing and utilization is not standard, lead to lead and lead-containing acid leakage, resulting in serious pollution of the atmosphere, water and soil environment. According to incomplete statistics, nearly 160,000 tons of lead lost in the illegal smelting process in China every year.

In China, only about 30% of the 3 million tons of waste lead acid batteries are recovered through formal method, which means that most of the waste lead acid batteries are recovered through informal method. Compared with formal recycling method, informal recycling method is not constrained by equipment investment, plant construction, cost and other factors. In most cases, the illegal lead smelting operations were to be simple waste lead acid accumulator and dismantling, keep high recycling scrap value of lead plate to refining of lead ingot, at the same time will lead acid dumped into the soil or rivers, produced in the process of waste gas, waste water, waste residue without processing and direct emissions, and ecological environment easy to cause potential safety hazard to the human.

Formal recycling enterprises of waste lead batteries shall have the qualification certificate issued by the relevant state departments and strictly follow the relevant procedures to carry out recycling and processing business. Industry insiders pointed out that the formal recycling of waste lead battery enterprises are in a fully closed environment, the use of automatic mechanical equipment, the waste lead battery crushing, sorting, and conversion. Every ton of recycled lead still needs to pay tax, and the environmental protection cost is nearly ¥1,000. Compared with illegal lead smelting workshops, the profit space is relatively small and the operating pressure is large, so the price of purchasing used lead batteries by formal enterprises will be relatively low. People would naturally be more inclined to sell used lead batteries to illegal smelters at higher prices.

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